The UK government has approved a third runway at Heathrow to expand the country’s airport capacity following a cabinet committee meeting on Tuesday.
Transport Secretary Chris Grayling said the “truly momentous” decision would support trade and create jobs.
Gatwick airport said it was disappointed with the decision, which was “not the right answer for Britain”.
Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson – a vocal opponent of Heathrow – said a third runway was “undeliverable”.
The MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip in west London doubted whether construction would ever start: “The day when the bulldozers appear is a long way off, if indeed they ever materialise.”
Sadiq Khan, the mayor of London, also said expanding the west London airport was the wrong decision for both London and the UK.
Greenpeace UK chief John Sauven said a third runway at Heathrow would increase air pollution and “be a waste of time, money and lives”.
A wide range of unions and business groups welcomed the decision to expand Heathrow. TUC general secretary Frances O’Grady said it was “absolutely vital for Britain”, while CBI chief Paul Drechsler said it would create jobs and boost economic growth.
Heathrow management said the airport was ready to deliver a third runway that was “fair, affordable and secures the benefits of expansion for the whole of the UK”.
The shadow chancellor, John McDonnell, whose Hayes and Harlington constituency includes Heathrow, said the announcement was the start, rather than the end, of the process.
“It beggars belief that it has taken ministers over a year since the publication of the Davies report to even make that start,” he said. “There is no justification for dithering on this scale.”
A public consultation will now be held on the effects of airport expansion before the government makes a final decision as part of a national policy statement on aviation.
MPs will then vote on that decision in the winter of 2017-18. It is unlikely that any new runway capacity would be operational before 2025.
Construction is not likely to begin until 2020 or 2021, the Airports Commission has said.
Willie Walsh, chief executive of British Airways owner IAG, welcomed the decision to expand Heathrow but added: “The government’s directive to cap customer charges at today’s level is fundamental. Heathrow is the world’s most expensive hub airport so it’s critical that new capacity is affordable.”
His counterpart at Virgin Atlantic, Craig Kreeger, described the announcement as an exciting opportunity to radically transform airline competition at the UK’s main airport”. The airline would strive to ensure that passengers were not “overburdened by paying for runways and facilities that won’t be open until the mid-2020s”.